Loop diuretics pharmacology nursing review that includes the mechanism of action, side effects, nursing interventions, and patient education.
Loop diuretics mechanism of action is on the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. These medications will inhibit the sodium-potassium-chloride (NKCC2) cotransporter. When this cotransporter is inhibited, it will decrease the ions (sodium, potassium, and chloride) reabsorbed into the blood.
In turn, this will decrease sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle (which normally reabsorbs about 25% of sodium) and decrease the tonicity of the medulla, which is normally hypertonic. The end result will be that the collecting ducts and loop of Henle will reabsorb less water back into the blood and more water will leave the nephron as filtrate.
Side effects of loop diuretics include: hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, ototoxicity, metabolic aklaosis, and dehydration.
Loop diuretics are used to treat heart failure, pulmonary edema, hypercalcemia, and liver impairment (due to ascites).
Nursing interventions for loop diuretics: included in the video.
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Loop diuretics are a class of medications that are commonly used in the management of fluid overload and edema. One of the most commonly prescribed loop diuretics is Furosemide. Furosemide works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter in the loop of Henle in the kidneys. This prevents the reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water, leading to increased urine output and subsequent reduction in fluid overload.
Furosemide’s mechanism of action is unique in that it specifically targets the loop of Henle, which is responsible for approximately 25% of sodium and chloride reabsorption in the kidneys. By inhibiting this process, Furosemide is able to produce a rapid and significant diuresis, making it an effective medication for managing acute fluid overload in conditions such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and renal failure.
Furosemide is typically administered orally or intravenously and has a rapid onset of action, with diuresis typically occurring within 30 minutes of administration. The medication is metabolized in the liver and excreted primarily in the urine.
Nurses play a crucial role in the administration and monitoring of loop diuretics such as Furosemide. It is important for nurses to monitor patients for potential adverse effects such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, and hypotension. Patients receiving Furosemide should also be monitored for signs of ototoxicity, which can occur with high doses or prolonged use of the medication.
Overall, Furosemide is a highly effective medication for managing fluid overload and edema in a variety of clinical settings. Its unique mechanism of action and rapid onset of action make it an essential tool in the management of acute and chronic fluid overload in patients.